Does Heading a Soccer Ball Cause Brain Damage?

posted on:

Soccer heading poses greater risk to youth players
Two women soccer players head a soccer ball simultaneously.
Credit: AP Photo/File 

It has become clear that impact sports like football and boxing can cause long-term brain damage. Now soccer is coming under scrutiny. As evidence mounts that excessively heading a soccer ball can injure a player’s brain, professional players such as Brandi Chastain, a star of the 1999 FIFA Women’s World Cup, are using this year’s tournament to call attention to the health risks facing young players. To learn about the latest science on soccer heading and brain injuries, Scientific American spoke to Robert Cantu, professor of neurosurgery at the Boston University School of Medicine and co-founder of the Sports Legacy Institute.

What’s the scientific evidence for whether heading a soccer ball can cause brain damage?Our findings and the findings of other researchers show that heading a soccer ball can contribute to neurodegenerative problems, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Researchers who’ve followed soccer players have seen a close relationship between the amount of heading that a player does and brain abnormalities. There’ve also been studies where researchers compared soccer players to swimmers, and swimmers’ brains look perfectly normal while the soccer players’ brains had abnormalities in their white matter fiber tracts. Nerve cells transmit their messages to other nerve cells by way of their fiber tracts, or axons, and if the brain is violently shaken enough, a person can have disruption of their fiber tracts.

What are the effects of these brain abnormalities?

Excessive shaking of the brain—excessive subconcussive and concussive trauma—can lead to cognitive symptoms, including memory problems as well as behavior and mood problems such as anxiety and depression. Other symptoms include trouble with sleep, light-headedness and headaches.

Do researchers see this brain damage later in life, once someone has stopped playing soccer?

We haven’t yet followed these abnormalities over years. Those studies are ongoing. Do those abnormalities clear up over time or do they not? We don’t know the answer yet. It’s probably some of both.

Is there a threshold of force below which a person can safely head a ball?

The science isn’t there yet. We don’t even have a threshold that predicts the linear and rotational accelerations needed to cause a concussion. The linear forces are measured in gravity, and we’ve measured hits in various sports as high as 150 g’s where people haven’t had concussions and we’ve had other individuals with hits as low as 50 to 60 g’s who’ve had concussions. The other kind of forces—the rotational or twisting forces—which are measured in radians per seconds squared, we also don’t know those forces needed to produce concussions.

We also don’t have a good handle on the threshold needed to produce subconcussive trauma, which are blows to the head that don’t produce symptoms but do produce structural changes observable in neuroimaging.

Why is it taking so long for researchers to understand the effects of concussive and subconcussive impacts on the brain?

It’s a very complex issue. You have biomechanical forces that can be measured, like the linear and rotational acceleration. But we’re dealing with a human, not an inert object in a laboratory. There are a lot of biological factors that influence whether that human being has a concussion: How many concussions that person has had before, how severe those concussions were and how close together they occurred. Other factors include: age—it’s easier to be concussed at an earlier age than at an adult age, and the recovery is slower; neck strength—if you see the hit coming and you have a strong neck, you significantly reduce your chance of a concussion; hydration status—if you’re dehydrated, you’re more likely to have a concussion; and sex—women are more easily concussed than men.

What’s your advice for soccer parents? Do you recommend an age cutoff for heading a soccer ball?

We recommend that youngsters under the age of 14 not head the ball in soccer, not play tackle football and not full-body check in ice hockey. Impacts to the head are more damaging under that age, due to a number of structural and metabolic reasons. The brains of youngsters are not as myelinated as adult brains. Myelin is the coating of the neuron fibers—kind of like coating on a telephone wire. It helps transmission of signals and it also gives neurons much greater strength, so young brains are more vulnerable.
 
Youngsters also have disproportionately big heads. By the age of five, their heads are about 90 percent of their adult circumference, but the neck has not nearly developed to that point. They have big heads on very weak necks and that bobblehead-doll effect means you don’t have to impact the head as hard to cause damage.

Should heading be banned from soccer altogether?
It shouldn’t be banned because we don’t have enough evidence right now to understand exactly what are the risks. The point of this research isn’t to reduce participation in soccer. The point is to have more people play soccer, but have them play it in a safer manner at the youth level. This doesn’t mean that youngsters can’t be taught these skills. Instead of heading a soccer ball, they should practice heading with a beach ball.



Neck Muscle Strength, Bracing And Training The System by Mike Gittleson

posted on:

On January 31, 2014 the American Journal of Sports Medicine published an article on neck strength titled, Effect of Neck Muscle Strength and Anticipatory Cervical Muscle Activation on the Kinematic Response of the Head to Impulsive Loads. The findings indicated that male and female athletes could potentially modify risk factors for concussion by developing neck musculature. It was shown that having greater neck strength when bracing for impact reduces the magnitude of the head’s kinematic response.

The anticipatory act of bracing for a violent collision is important in protecting oneself from the effects of whiplash, yet bracing in itself is a common occurrence. When you run, neck muscles contract before your foot hits the ground. The process of running is inherently bouncy as our muscle tendon units act as springs to propel us up and forward. This aerial phase neck muscle contraction is in anticipation of the ground reaction force. Ground reaction force causes a vertical acceleration of the head that actually pitches the head forward at foot strike.

The human head uses a self-stabilizing system that does not rely on muscular reflex to control the pitching action during running. Reflex alone cannot control the action of the head once ground strike occurs – having fewer than then 10 milliseconds to control the up and forward action of the head is not enough time for our natural reflexes.

Our head, which is pitched forward upon landing, also rolls and yaws. This requires contractions of neck extensors, as well as flexors and a downward swing of an arm that dampens vertical acceleration. Each arm constitutes about eight percent of total body mass, roughly the same relative percent as the 5 to 6 kilogram runner’s head. If you consider the head in running as the primary mass then the downward swing of the stance side arm becomes the counter mass accelerating in the opposite direction, thereby dampening the skull’s oscillation. The athlete then alters their running form by bending and swinging his or her arms in movements with the appropriate power and speed to counter these varying vectors of force. Changing the mass or active stiffness of the arms through strength training and not addressing the mass and/or muscular system of the head and neck can be problematic. The coach and athlete will spend countless hours trying to achieve a particular running form that cannot truly be corrected unless they address the musculature that is controlling the movement of the skull.

There is another issue that the neck must attend to during running. When we land during sprinting we avoid falling down by utilizing the muscles of the lower back and hip – particularly the largest muscle of our body, the powerful gluteus maximus – to decelerate the trunk. As the trunk accelerates forward and then backward the head and neck accelerates backward then forward. Try this at home: Sit in your car and accelerate quickly forward then step on the brake. Vehicle acceleration provides example that the more the trunk pitches the more the head reacts. Increasing the strength and/or mass of the trunk and not addressing the strength and/or mass of the head and neck adversely effects athleticism.

As mentioned, the head also rolls and yaws during running, usually towards the stance side foot at foot strike. Once the runner is in the aerial phase one leg quickly swings forward while the opposite leg is thrust behind the body, causing angular momentum around the vertical axis. We counteract this by swinging our arms in an opposite phase to the legs to have an equal and opposite angular momentum. The neck must not only rotate in the opposite direction of the trunk but quickly prepare for being thrust vertically and forward upon landing.

The human brain is encased in a rigid skull and covered by a muscular scalp which is surrounded by three layers of membranes and floats in a protective cushion of cerebrospinal fluid. Though protected, brain trauma can occur with sudden acceleration or deceleration within the cranium. Control of head stabilization is one important line of defense for protecting the brain from perturbation. During activity, it remains relatively stable as we integrate information about the head and body from our eyes, vestibular system and proprioceptors of the neck. For athletes involved in any sport with an associated head trauma risk, protecting the brain from excessive subconcussive forces through strength training head and neck musculature for bracing is the first job of a strength and conditioning coach.

For any athlete to excel in sport, they must train the structures that decelerate opposing masses. This means that athletes must have head and neck training as part of their exercise regime. The head and neck muscles are countering arm swing, trunk pitch and rotation, as the arms are countering head pitch, leg swing and trunk movement. Developing one area and neglecting another is not conducive to optimal athletic development or performance. Train the entire system.

Source



Football Strength Clinic #4

posted on:

MAJOR TOPICS THAT WILL BE COVERED IN THIS CLINIC INCLUDE:

* PREPARING FOOTBALL PLAYERS FOR THE RIGORS AND PHYSICAL STRESSES OF A VIOLENT GAME

* FACING UP TO THE PROBLEM OF HEAD AND NECK INJURIES AND WHAT CAN BE DONE TO ADDRESS THEM

* DEVELOPING THE MUSCULAR STRUCTURES THAT DISSIPATE THE FORCES THAT CAN CAUSE CONCUSSIONS

* YOU DON’T NEED DRUGS TO GET STRONG AND YOU DON’T NEED DRUGS TO PLAY FOOTBALL

* STRAIGHT TALK ON SUPPLEMENTS AND SPORT NUTRITION

* EXCITING NEW RESEARCH ON THE TRAINING OF ATHLETES… A RE-THINKING OF OFF-SEASON AND IN-SEASON TRAINING PROGRAMS

THIS CLINIC IS PRIMARILY FOR FOOTBALL STRENGTH COACHES. STRENGTH PROFESSIONALS WHO TRAIN AND PREPARE ATHLETES TO PARTICIPATE IN ALL SPORTS WILL CERTAINLY GAIN FROM ATTENDING

_______________________$35.00

For each of the last four years, we have held a strength clinic during the summer in Cincinnati, Ohio and this year we will once again be doing so. Our intention is to “face up” to many of the hard questions that are not being addressed or answered about the game of football. A great deal of our discussion will center around the widely-publicized concussion crisis and what can be done about it. Coaches, strength coaches, players, school administrators, athletic directors are all encouraged to attend.

WHAT: FOOTBALL STRENGTH CLINIC 2014
“…preparing football players for a rugged and violent game.”

WHEN:

Friday, June 27th, 2014
Evening session: starts at 7pm and will run until 9pm (snacks and light refreshments served)

Saturday, June 28th, 2014
check-in starts at 8 am, clinic runs from 9-4ish (snacks and light refreshments served in the morning, lunch will be provided in the afternoon)

WHERE: Cincinnati, Ohio

Pallet 23 Event Space (which is AIR CONDITIONED!)
3932 Spring Grove Ave,
Cincinnati, OH 45223

CLICK HERE FOR DIRECTIONS TO THE CLINIC LOCATION: http://pallet23.com/northside-location/

PARKING:

There is a small lot just outside of the clinic location. Street parking is available on several of the surrounding roads but a major lot is located less than a block from the clinic site at the Northside Health Center (lower left corner above.)

CLINIC SPEAKERS:

MIKE GITTLESON - 30 YEAR STRENGTH COACH UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN…BO SCHEMBECHLER’S FIRST AND ONLY STRENGTH COACH

KIM WOOD – 30 YEAR STRENGTH COACH CINCINNATI BENGALS(NFL)…PAUL BROWN’S FIRST AND ONLY STRENGTH COACH

GREGORY PYSZCZYNSKI
– HEAD STRENGTH COACH THE UNIVERSITY OF BUFFALO… A TRUE EXPERT ON TRAINING THE HEAD AND NECK FOR CONTACT SPORTS

SCOTT HOLSOPPLE
- STRENGTH COACH THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS. FORMERLY HEAD BASKETBALL STRENGTH COACH AT MARQUETTE AND KENTUCKY…FORMERLY A FOOTBALL
STRENGTH COACH AT PENN STATE AND NATIONAL CHAMPION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA…SCOTT IS ONE OF THE TOP MOTIVATORS IN STRENGTH COACHING TODAY…

DOUG SCOTT – STRENGTH COACH AT THE PINGRY SCHOOL IN NEW JERSEY…DOUG SPEAKS OF HIS HEAD AND NECK TRAINING PROGRAM FROM THE 6TH GRADE ON…

JOHN WOOD – GRIP EXPERT…JOHN FOCUSES ON TRAINING THE HANDS, FOREARMS AND ARMS FOR FOOTBALL COMBAT

BEN OLDHAM – LONG TIME SEC FOOTBALL OFFICIAL… THE EFFORTS OF FOOTBALL’S RULE MAKERS TO PROTECT THE PLAYERS…

DR. TED LAMBRINIDES – FORMER ASSISTANT STRENGTH COACH AT OHIO STATE AND THE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY… EXPERT ON SPORTS NUTRITION

MIKE JOSEPH – HEAD STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WEST VIRGINIA. MIKE RUNS A COMPREHENSIVE HEAD AND NECK STRENGTHENING PROGRAM

DARL BAUER – ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WEST VIRGINIA.

Hotel Info:

Marriott Kingsgate
Conference Center
151 Goodman Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45219

www.kingsgatemarriott.com
Phone 1-888-720-1299

Hampton Inn & Suites
Cincinnati Uptown/University
3024 Vine Street
Cincinnati, OH, 45219
phone: 1-513-281-2700
Fax: 1-513-281-0700

Airport info:

If you are flying in for the clinic you have two options as far as airports:

The first one — what I recommend — is the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky airport (CVG). This airport is roughly a 20 minute ride from the clinic Your second option is to fly into the Dayton airport (DAY). Flights are usually cheaper to Dayton, however, it is also about an hour’s drive to Cincinnati so it probably evens out as far as cost/time.



Can Neck Strength Prevent Concussions?

posted on:

Alex Marvez has been in attendance at all our our clinics so far. Here is one of his articles about last year’s event:

Can Neck Strength Prevent Concussions?


Torrey Smith was one of three Ravens players to suffer a concussion in the 2013 season.

CINCINNATI, Ohio

The Baltimore Ravens won Super Bowl XLVII with one of the NFL’s most loaded rosters.

But what good is talent if players can’t stay on the field or quickly recover from injuries.

Ravens strength coach Bob Rogucki delivered a reminder of that last week when speaking at the third-annual Football Strength Clinic in Cincinnati. The event focused on ways in which neck strength for male and female athletes who play high school, college or pro sports can be developed in an effort to reduce concussion risk.

While not as publicized as other NFL anti-concussion measures, there is scientific research that shows a muscular neck likely defuses the potentially damaging forces sometimes generated when a player is hit in the head. The larger the “cylinder,” the better the chance that the neck will serve as a shock-absorber to lessen stress placed on the skull.

Exactly how much Rogucki’s weight-lifting program helped players last season can’t be scientifically quantified. It’s safe to say, though, that it definitely didn’t hurt during Baltimore’s championship run. READ MORE >>>

 

 



Football’s Risks Sink In, Even in Heart of Texas

posted on:

MARSHALL, Tex. — In many ways, this East Texas town stands as a vibrant example of the state’s storied relationship with football.

Not long ago, caravans of cars drove to Houston and Dallas to watch the Marshall Mavericks battle for the high school state football championship, and signs hanging from bridges along the interstate read, “Playoff bound.” The local sporting-goods shops would sell out of red-and-white merchandise — anything in the school’s colors — on game days.

But now Marshall represents something quite different — a shift in perceptions about football that would have been hard to imagine when the school made a cameo in the book “Friday Night Lights” nearly 25 years ago.

Amid widespread and growing concerns about the physical dangers of the sport, the school board here approved plans in February to shut down the district’s entry-level, tackle-football program for seventh graders in favor of flag football. There was little objection. (Keep Reading >>>)



Creating a safer way to practice high school football

posted on:

“Imagine if someone told you the best way to prepare for a car crash was to be in a series of car crashes each week. This is basically the logic that has permeated football practice for years.

The accepted way to prepare players for the high-speed impacts of a game was to subject them to those same impacts in practice, toughen ’em up by tenderizing them like beef. But the growing awareness and acknowledgment of the dangers of concussions and subconcussive hits has forced a sea change in football culture at the NFL level.

The days of turning players into human battering rams day after day in practice are as outmoded as the rotary telephone…” (keep reading)